The three-dimensional organization of a genome plays a critical role in regulating gene expression, yet little is known about the machinery and mechanisms that determine higher-order chromosome structure. Here we perform genome-wide chromosome conformation capture analysis, fluorescent in situ hybridization (FISH), and RNA-seq to obtain comprehensive three-dimensional (3D) maps of the Caenorhabditis elegans genome and to dissect X chromosome dosage compensation, which balances gene expression between XX hermaphrodites and XO males. The dosage compensation complex (DCC), a condensin complex, binds to both hermaphrodite X chromosomes via sequence-specific recruitment elements on X (rex sites) to reduce chromosome-wide gene expression by half. Most DCC condensin subunits also act in other condensin complexes to control the compaction and resolution of all mitotic and meiotic chromosomes. By comparing chromosome structure in wild-type and DCC-defective embryos, we show that the DCC remodels hermaphrodite X chromosomes into a sex-specific spatial conformation distinct from autosomes. Dosage-compensated X chromosomes consist of self-interacting domains (∼1 Mb) resembling mammalian topologically associating domains (TADs). TADs on X chromosomes have stronger boundaries and more regular spacing than on autosomes. Many TAD boundaries on X chromosomes coincide with the highest-affinity rex sites and become diminished or lost in DCC-defective mutants, thereby converting the topology of X to a conformation resembling autosomes. rex sites engage in DCC-dependent long-range interactions, with the most frequent interactions occurring between rex sites at DCC-dependent TAD boundaries. These results imply that the DCC reshapes the topology of X chromosomes by forming new TAD boundaries and reinforcing weak boundaries through interactions between its highest-affinity binding sites. As this model predicts, deletion of an endogenous rex site at a DCC-dependent TAD boundary using CRISPR/Cas9 greatly diminished the boundary. Thus, the DCC imposes a distinct higher-order structure onto X chromosomes while regulating gene expression chromosome-wide.
Crane, E., Bian, Q., McCord, R.P., Lajoie, B.R., Wheeler, B.S., Ralston, E.J., Uzawa, S., Dekker, J., and Meyer, B.J. (2015). Condensin-driven remodelling of X chromosome topology during dosage compensation. Nature 523, 240-244.
We describe a Hi-C-based method, Micro-C, in which micrococcal nuclease is used instead of restriction enzymes to fragment chromatin, enabling nucleosome resolution chromosome folding maps. Analysis of Micro-C maps for budding yeast reveals abundant self-associating domains similar to those reported in other species, but not previously observed in yeast. These structures, far shorter than topologically associating domains in mammals, typically encompass one to five genes in yeast. Strong boundaries between self-associating domains occur at promoters of highly transcribed genes and regions of rapid histone turnover that are typically bound by the RSC chromatin-remodeling complex. Investigation of chromosome folding in mutants confirms roles for RSC, “gene looping” factor Ssu72, Mediator, H3K56 acetyltransferase Rtt109, and the N-terminal tail of H4 in folding of the yeast genome. This approach provides detailed structural maps of a eukaryotic genome, and our findings provide insights into the machinery underlying chromosome compaction.
Hsieh, T.H., Weiner, A., Lajoie, B., Dekker, J., Friedman, N., and Rando, O.J. (2015). Mapping Nucleosome Resolution Chromosome Folding in Yeast by Micro-C. Cell 162, 108-119.
RESEARCHER: Job Dekker, Professor and Co-Director, Program in Systems Biology, University of Massachusetts Medical School, Worcester
PROJECT: Mapping long-range DNA interactions as part of the ENCODE project
PROBLEM: 3C is not easily multiplexed, making its application to large genomic surveys impractical.
SOLUTION: 3C is sometimes called a one vs. one technique because it is used to measure individual interactions between selected pairs of genomic segments. In the technique, cellular chromatin structure is frozen in place with a crosslinker such as formaldehyde. Restriction enzymes cut the DNA and the resulting ends are then ligated together to physically link the two previously separate strands. The crosslink is then reversed to release the now-connected DNA fragments. Finally, researchers probe for specific physical interactions by using PCR to amplify across their ligation junctions.
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Mitotic chromosomes are among the most recognizable structures in the cell, yet for over a century their internal organization remains largely unsolved. We applied chromosome conformation capture methods, 5C and Hi-C, across the cell cycle and revealed two distinct three-dimensional folding states of the human genome. We show that the highly compartmentalized and cell type-specific organization described previously for nonsynchronous cells is restricted to interphase. In metaphase, we identified a homogenous folding state that is locus-independent, common to all chromosomes, and consistent among cell types, suggesting a general principle of metaphase chromosome organization. Using polymer simulations, we found that metaphase Hi-C data are inconsistent with classic hierarchical models and are instead best described by a linearly organized longitudinally compressed array of consecutive chromatin loops.
Naumova, N., Imakaev, M., Fudenberg, G., Zhan, Y., Lajoie, B.R., Mirny, L.A., and Dekker, J. (2013). Organization of the mitotic chromosome. Science 342, 948-953.